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  • Enhanced methods for nickel recovery from low-grade ores ...

    The recovery of nickel from low-grade ores is increasingly more important, from new techniques of pressure oxidation of the concentrate in an autoclave to bioleaching of the nickel in the ore, it is evident that time and money are being put into researching these processes.

  • Common Basic Formulas for Mineral Processing Calculations

    Formula (32) is very convenient for milling calculations on ores of this type. Example: An ore contains 5% lead and 1% copper. The ratio of perfect concentration for a concentrate of maximum grade and 100% recoveries of lead and copper would be: by (29) K perfect = 100/5.775+2.887 = 11.545 and % Pb in perfect concentrate = 11.545 x 5 = 57.7%

  • CuEq Metal Equivalent Calculator for Mining Results ...

    Jan 23, 2014  A nickel deposit may have PGE, gold or other minor constituents. Use this simple metal equivalents calculator to calculate common (and uncommon) equivalences. For each metal select the grade and the market price to be used in the calculations. You may also select a metallurgical recovery % and smelter return rate if known.

  • Copper smelter matte grade calculations SpringerLink

    Nov 27, 2014  Development of an equation to calculate matte grade based on oxygen availability. Development of an equation to calculate matte grade based on oxygen availability. Advertisement. Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. ... Copper smelter matte grade calculations.

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  • Copper extraction - Wikipedia

    Jul 16, 2004  Similarly, increasing the target matte grade requires the rejection of more iron and an increase in the slag volume. Thus, the two factors that most affect the loss of copper to slag in the smelting stage are: matte grade; mass of slag. This means that there is a practical limit on how high the matte grade can be if the loss of copper to slag ...

  • Recovery of nickel and copper from high-grade matte at ...

    High-grade nickel-copper matte is treated at Impala Platinum to produce nickel briquettes and copper cathodes. The remaining residue is separately treated for the recovery of platinum group metals. The major portion of the nickel values is preferentially extracted in a first stage acid oxidation leach.

  • Metal Value per Tonne - How You Can Determine the Mineral ...

    You will find this explanation under the header How to Calculate the Cut-Off Grade, but in summary: 1% equals to 22 pounds. How To Calculate the Metal Value per Tonne. In the following table, I have created some examples for calculating the metal value, using the

  • NICKEL PLATING HANDBOOK

    dissolution of nickel (i.e. the current efficiency is 100% – this will be explained further below). The factor 1.095 in the above calculation is derived from Faraday’s work discussed on the previous page. For nickel, the atomic weight is 58.70 and the valency is 2, giving an equivalent weight of 29.35. Therefore, 26.799 ampere-hours will

  • Sulfide Ores - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    The most common nickel mineral in these ores is pentlandite, (Ni,Fe) 9 S 8. The atomic ratio of nickel to iron in pentlandite ranges between 0.34 and 2.45. Most often, though, it is about 1.15. Common minerals that accompany pentlandite are pyrrhotite, Fe 8 S 9, and chalcopyrite, CuFeS 2. Cobalt and platinum-group elements are also present ...

  • Metallurgical Accounting Formulas Concentration and ...

    R = 100 c/Kf = recovery % By weights F and C, plus assays c and t; R = 100 Cc / (Cc+t(F—C)) = recovery % A copper concentrator is milling 15,000 tons/day of a chalcopyrite ore assaying 1.15% copper. The concentrate and tailings produced average 32.7% and 0.18% copper, respectively. I let you do the math! Three product (bi-metallic) formulas

  • NICKEL PLATING HANDBOOK

    dissolution of nickel (i.e. the current efficiency is 100% – this will be explained further below). The factor 1.095 in the above calculation is derived from Faraday’s work discussed on the previous page. For nickel, the atomic weight is 58.70 and the valency is 2, giving an equivalent weight of 29.35. Therefore, 26.799 ampere-hours will

  • Sulfide Ores - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    The most common nickel mineral in these ores is pentlandite, (Ni,Fe) 9 S 8. The atomic ratio of nickel to iron in pentlandite ranges between 0.34 and 2.45. Most often, though, it is about 1.15. Common minerals that accompany pentlandite are pyrrhotite, Fe 8 S 9, and chalcopyrite, CuFeS 2. Cobalt and platinum-group elements are also present ...

  • Nickel and Cobalt Production Request PDF

    The topics discussed include smelting laterite concentrates to sulfide matte, extracting nickel and cobalt from sulfide ores, the slow cooling and solidification of converter matte, extracting ...

  • Mineral Deposit Value - How to Calculate the Potential ...

    Before you can calculate the potential mineral deposit value, you first need to gather some specific data regarding the ore body and the individual drill results.. This required data can be found in the mining company’s press releases in which they announce their drill results.Make sure that this data is announced according to the guidelines of National Instrument 43-101 (i.e. approved by a ...

  • About Equivalent Grade MarketCap

    Equivalent grade is the term used where mineralisation that is comprised of several metals of economic value is converted to a single metal. Typically the minor metals are converted by formula and added to the grade of the major metal. ... Copper Equivalent Grade of 2.27%. This is the most basic and most typical calculation. The principal ...

  • Total Materia - Copper Grades

    Copper Grades in Total Materia. The Total Materia database includes more than 27,000 copper alloys along with another 350,000 metal alloys from all over the world. Their chemical compositions, mechanical and physical properties, cross-references and more are only a click away.. Finding a copper grade in the database is very easy and takes seconds. For example, let’s look into the properties ...

  • NICKEL AND COBALT RECOVERY FROM MESABA

    economically viable copper-nickel deposit, and also by attractive nickel prices which predominated at the time. The development of the nickel purification and recovery flow sheet for the Mesaba concentrate was divided into six distinct stages, with each stage having its own objective. A brief description of each stage is presented in Table 2.

  • COPPER Copper production - Repository

    The copper recovery efficiency is over 90 %. About 95 % of ... The blast or shaft furnace is well-suited for smelting high-grade, lumpy copper ore. If only fine -3 of 11- ... The reverberatory furnace dominated copper matte smelting for much of the 1900s, because it was

  • Cobalt Recover From Nickel Ore

    Copper reduction to 4 ppm resulted in a Co-Cu ratio of over 3,000 in the raffinate. Raffinate containing 11.5 g/L Co served as feed to the cobalt recovery circuit. Approximately 3 pct of the cobalt and nickel were coextracted with the copper. Leaching and ion exchange based recovery of nickel and

  • RECENT ADVANCES IN THE EXTRACTION OF COPPER,

    and energy efficient processes are being developed to recover metals from low grade ores and secondaries to meet the requirement of the society. Therefore, it is essential to update ourselves with recent advances in extraction processes of copper, nickel and cobalt. Extraction of Copper Copper exists in nature mostly in the form of copper sulfide.

  • 12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

    Converting the matte yields a high-grade "blister" copper, with 98.5 to 99.5 percent copper. Typically, blister copper is then fire-refined in an anode furnace, cast into "anodes", and sent to an electrolytic refinery for further impurity elimination. Roasting is performed in copper smelters prior to charging reverberatory furnaces. In roasting,

  • A correlation of oxygen in industrial Ni, Cu mattes with ...

    Twelve sets of granulated mattes and slags from the W.M.C. nickel smelter at Kalgoorlie, and four sets from the copper smelter at Mt. Isa, were analysed for oxygen in matte by a hydrogen reduction technique, and slags analysed for Fe3+ /Fe2+ ratio and the amount of dissolved metal (either copper or nickel). Copper mattes containing between 36.2 and 39.7 per cent Cu contained dissolved oxygen ...

  • cobalt copper ore production

    nickel and cobalt recovery from mesaba Iron Ore Mine. Figure 1 Location of Teck's Mesaba Property The mineralogy of the Mesaba ore does not allow for effective production of separate copper and nickel concentrates, however, a low grade bulk concentrate may be produced with reasonable copper and nickel recoveries.

  • Cut-off grade estimation - QueensMineDesignWiki

    Cut-Off grade is the minimum grade required in order for a mineral or metal to be economically mined (or processed). Material found to be above this grade is considered to be ore, while material below this grade is considered to be waste. Although in a variety of units can be used, the cut-off grade

  • Cobalt Recover From Nickel Ore

    Copper reduction to 4 ppm resulted in a Co-Cu ratio of over 3,000 in the raffinate. Raffinate containing 11.5 g/L Co served as feed to the cobalt recovery circuit. Approximately 3 pct of the cobalt and nickel were coextracted with the copper. Leaching and ion exchange based recovery of nickel and

  • RECENT ADVANCES IN THE EXTRACTION OF COPPER,

    and energy efficient processes are being developed to recover metals from low grade ores and secondaries to meet the requirement of the society. Therefore, it is essential to update ourselves with recent advances in extraction processes of copper, nickel and cobalt. Extraction of Copper Copper exists in nature mostly in the form of copper sulfide.

  • 12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

    Converting the matte yields a high-grade "blister" copper, with 98.5 to 99.5 percent copper. Typically, blister copper is then fire-refined in an anode furnace, cast into "anodes", and sent to an electrolytic refinery for further impurity elimination. Roasting is performed in copper smelters prior to charging reverberatory furnaces. In roasting,

  • A correlation of oxygen in industrial Ni, Cu mattes with ...

    Twelve sets of granulated mattes and slags from the W.M.C. nickel smelter at Kalgoorlie, and four sets from the copper smelter at Mt. Isa, were analysed for oxygen in matte by a hydrogen reduction technique, and slags analysed for Fe3+ /Fe2+ ratio and the amount of dissolved metal (either copper or nickel). Copper mattes containing between 36.2 and 39.7 per cent Cu contained dissolved oxygen ...

  • cobalt copper ore production

    nickel and cobalt recovery from mesaba Iron Ore Mine. Figure 1 Location of Teck's Mesaba Property The mineralogy of the Mesaba ore does not allow for effective production of separate copper and nickel concentrates, however, a low grade bulk concentrate may be produced with reasonable copper and nickel recoveries.

  • Cut-off grade estimation - QueensMineDesignWiki

    Cut-Off grade is the minimum grade required in order for a mineral or metal to be economically mined (or processed). Material found to be above this grade is considered to be ore, while material below this grade is considered to be waste. Although in a variety of units can be used, the cut-off grade

  • Environmental Guidelines for Nickel Smelting and Refining

    Various processes are used to refine nickel matte. Fluid bed roasting and a chlorine-hydrogen reduction will produce high grade nickel oxides (95%+ nickel). Vapor processes, such as the carbonyl process, can be used to produce high purity nickel pellets. In this process, copper and precious metals remain as a pyrophoric residue requiring separate

  • Nickel processing Britannica

    Nickel processing, preparation of the metal for use in various products. Although it is best known for its use in coinage, nickel (Ni) has become much more important for its many industrial applications, which owe their importance to a unique combination of properties. Nickel has a relatively high

  • Recovery of platinum group metals from nickel-copper-iron ...

    Feb 18, 1986  A process for separately recovering platinum group metal values, nickel values and copper from nickel-copper-iron sulphidic matte containing platinum group metals includes leaching ground matte at atmospheric pressure in acidic nickel-copper sulphate solution at a temperature in the range of from about 75° to about 105° C. and at a pH below about 4 initially under oxidizing conditions

  • Selling Metal Concentrates: Payable Metal, Treatment ...

    The overall grade of the concentrate could be in the range 22% to 30% copper. Concentrates are usually specific to particular smelters. Thus a lead smelter or a zinc smelter could not smelt a copper concentrate (the converse is also true). In fact any copper in a lead or zinc concentrate is generally problematic in the smelting/refining ...

  • Faraday’s Law 1 Experiment 8: Copper Electroplating and ...

    Calculate the mass of nickel metal produced. Answer : The cathode reaction is given by Eq. 2, so that the number of electrons in the half-cell ... 1 cm x 10 cm strip of copper for the anode Nickel plated steel or brass to be plated (various decorative or jewelry items will be available) 10 cm of bare copper wire, 20-22 gauge, to attach the ...

  • Optimisation of platinum recovery from the Copper Boil

    BHP Billiton Nickel West Pty Ltd (Nickel West) operates a nickel refinery based on the Sherritt-Gordon process. The nickel matte feed contains copper which requires removal for the refinery to produce premium grade nickel briquettes and powder. The copper is removed via the copper boil process, precipitating out of solution with elemental sulphur

  • Separation of Copper and Nickel by Solvent Extraction ...

    copper and nickel sulfate solution with the ratio of cop- per to nickel as 10:1 and O:A as 2:1 at pH 2. The LIX percent that gave the highest selectivity is the desired %LIX for separation of copper and nickel at pH 2. Also at pH 2, the influence of %LIX on extraction of copper was found by contacting the aqueous feed solution with

  • OUTOTEC FLASH SMELTING TECHNOLOGY

    Flash Smelting is a natural choice for higher-grade copper concentrates due to its lower capital investment costs. Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting (DON) This process enables high-grade nickel matte to be produced using a single flash smelting furnace. It allows higher recovery of nickel, cobalt, and precious metals than

  • Recovery of platinum group metals from nickel-copper-iron ...

    Feb 18, 1986  A process for separately recovering platinum group metal values, nickel values and copper from nickel-copper-iron sulphidic matte containing platinum group metals includes leaching ground matte at atmospheric pressure in acidic nickel-copper sulphate solution at a temperature in the range of from about 75° to about 105° C. and at a pH below about 4 initially under oxidizing conditions

  • Understanding Cut-Off Grade 4 (Tonnage, Grade, and Costs ...

    Feb 17, 2018  The photo below shows an example of this type of deposit in a high grade copper sulphide mine. In this case, the ore is worth > $2,000/tonne and the host rock is completely barren.

  • OUTOTEC FLASH SMELTING TECHNOLOGY

    Flash Smelting is a natural choice for higher-grade copper concentrates due to its lower capital investment costs. Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting (DON) This process enables high-grade nickel matte to be produced using a single flash smelting furnace. It allows higher recovery of nickel, cobalt, and precious metals than

  • Xinhai High Quality Copper Leaching Tank in China

    The method of processing of oxidized nickel ores. The processing of oxidized Nickel ores is carried out in a shaft furnace by way of recovery sulfiding melting at Stein agglomerated or briketirovannogo ore enriched with fine ferronickel obtained in one way or another direct reduction of oxidized Nickel ores using cheaper in comparison with coke reductants such as coke breeze, low grade coal ...

  • Faraday’s Law 1 Experiment 8: Copper Electroplating and ...

    Calculate the mass of nickel metal produced. Answer : The cathode reaction is given by Eq. 2, so that the number of electrons in the half-cell ... 1 cm x 10 cm strip of copper for the anode Nickel plated steel or brass to be plated (various decorative or jewelry items will be available) 10 cm of bare copper wire, 20-22 gauge, to attach the ...

  • A Thermodynamic Model of Nickel Smelting and Direct High ...

    High-Grade Nickel Matte Smelting Processes: Part II. ... The calculations show that the matte grade increases from 26.9 to 33.6 pct as the ... the recovery of copper and cobalt. lower the content ...

  • Copper extraction - Wikipedia

    Similarly, increasing the target matte grade requires the rejection of more iron and an increase in the slag volume. Thus, the two factors that most affect the loss of copper to slag in the smelting stage are: matte grade; mass of slag. This means that there is a practical limit on how high the matte grade can be if the loss of copper to slag ...

  • Metallurgy - Matte smelting Britannica

    Metallurgy - Metallurgy - Matte smelting: The primary purpose of matte smelting is to melt and recombine the charge into a homogeneous matte of metallic copper, nickel, cobalt, and iron sulfides and to give an iron and silicon oxide slag. It is done in many types of furnace on both roasted or unroasted sulfide feed material. The reverberatory furnace is essentially a rectangular refractory ...

  • Activities of CoS and FeS in copper mattes and the ...

    The overall recovery of cobalt in blister copper depends on matte grade, and is as low as 3 pct at best. When a high cobalt recovery is desired, therefore, a copper concentrate rich in cobalt must not be processed by conventional pyrometallurgical technology in view of the inevitably high loss to slag.

  • Efficient and selective recovery of Ni, Cu, and Co from ...

    Abstract. Low-nickel matte was intensively characterized, and Ni, Cu, and Co were determined to exist mainly as (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8 and FeNi 3, Cu 5 FeS 4, and (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8 and Fe 3 O 4 (in isomorphic form), respectively. The efficient and selective extraction of Ni, Cu, and Co from the low-nickel matte in an (NH 4) 2 S 2 O 8 /NH 3 H 2 O solution system was studied. The effects of (NH 4) 2 S 2 O ...

  • TABLE OF EMISSIVITY OF VARIOUS SURFACES

    TABLE OF EMISSIVITY OF VARIOUS SURFACES Introduction: Emissivity is a modifying factor used in single color thermometry to achieve a correct temperature

  • AP-42, CH 12.9: Secondary Copper Smelting

    described above. This facility begins with low-grade copper scrap and conducts its entire refining operation in a single vessel. 12.9.2.3 Alloying - In alloying, copper-containing scrap is charged to a melting furnace along with 1 or more other metals such as tin, zinc, silver, lead, aluminum, or nickel. Fluxes are added to remove impurities

  • Copper - Specifications, Properties, Classifications and ...

    May 17, 2005  Copper alloys are some of the most versatile materials. The combination of properties like strength, conductivity, corrosion resistance, machinability and ductility make copper suitable for many applications. The Specifications, Properties, Classifications and Classes are provided for copper

  • Jaw CrusherNikel Oxide Ore Processing And Extraction Process

    Copper Mining And Processing Processing Of Copper Ores. Copper processing is a complicated process that begins with mining of the ore less than 1 copper and ends with sheets of 9999 pure copper called cathodes which will ultimately be made into products for everyday most common types of ore copper oxide and copper sulfide undergo two different processes hydrometallurgy and